How solar energy is converted into electricity?

Solar energy is the free energy that we get from the sun. There is an increased demand for renewable sources of energy in the recent years. Solar energy is clean and environmentally friendly. Solar panels are made from silicon and convert solar energy into electrical energy.

There are simple ways which convert the solar energy into electricity. These steps are given below:-

  1. Set up the solar at the top of your house where the maximum sunlight is available during the day.
  2. The solar panel is connected to the solar charge controller. The charge controller controls the charging of the battery and prevents it from overcharging. It also prevents the reverse flow of current during the night when no charging takes place.
  3. Connect the charge controller to the battery. The battery will start charging in the presence of sunlight if it is not fully charged. When the battery is fully charged, the charging process stops automatically and it restarts again when the indicator detects that the battery is to be charged.
  4. The power generated in the battery is 12-volt DC voltage and you have to convert it to AC current to run your home appliances that run on AC power. You have to install a power inverter to convert the DC power of the battery to an AC power for supporting your home devices.
  5. The process of generating electrical energy from solar energy begins with the collection of sunlight by the solar cells.

    The entire process involves the photovoltaic effect. The photovoltaic effect is a process which involves the excitation of electron and charge carrier to a higher energy state.

When a photon of light falls on this transistor, it excites the electrons and ejects them from their stable condition. The electrons from the n-type transistor start moving towards the holes in the p-type transistor. This sets up a current flow. Current is basically a flow of electrons. This leads to the generation of electricity. This is known as a photovoltaic process.

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